Massive hemoptysis is experienced by approximately 5 of patients with hemoptysis the definition of massive hemoptysis ranges from the expectoration of 100 ml of blood in a single episode to more than 600 ml of blood during 24 hours149150 airway bleeding leading to life threatening airway obstruction hypotension aspiration or anemia is also considered massive hemoptysis. Perforation along the gastrointestinal gi tract240 is a serious emergency in cancer patients the most common causes of perforation are spontaneous perforation secondary to tumor primary241242 or metastatic243 iatrogenic perforation secondary to instrumentation endoscopy or cancer treatment244 246 if the wall of the gi tract is significantly infiltrated or replaced by tumor tumor . Sai ching j yeung bs r ph ms ph d md facp department of emergency medicine division of internal medicine hong wk kufe dw piccart gebhart m pollack re weichselbaum rr yang h and holland jf editors oncologic emergencies in holland frei cancer medicine 9th edition weichselbaum rr yang h and holland jf editors . O n c o l o g i c me c h a n i c a l emergencies umar a khan md carl b shanholtz md michael t mccurdy md keywords pericardial tamponade superior vena cava syndrome brain metastasis metastatic spinal cord compression hyperviscosity syndrome key points diagnosing an oncologic emergency requires a high degree of suspicion in patients with a known or suspected malignancy. Mishaps in everyday life such as trauma burn electrocution environmental stresses heat or cold exposure drowning etc can lead to emergencies in cancer patients the debilitated physical status altered hemostasis or impaired immune system that may result from malignancy or treatment of malignancy make the cancer patient more vulnerable to complications than a normal person
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